Citing Books and Other Printed Material
You are likely to use books, magazines, journals, newspapers, and encyclopedias in your research. While the formats for citing these sources are similar, there are some things that are peculiar to each particular type of resource. Make sure that every citation has the information in the correct order. Different guides may order or style the parts of a citation a bit differently; make sure that the style you choose is applied consistently throughout the bibliography. There are no headings in a bibliography letting you know, for instance, what is a title and what is a publisher, so you must always follow a standard style.
Format for Books
Books are listed alphabetically in a bibliography according to the author's last name, and then the first name. The exact title of the book, including a subtitle if there is one, is the next element of the entry. Depending on the style guide you are following, this title will either be underlined or italicized. MLA style calls for underlined titles, and APA style calls for italics, so check with your instructor to find out whether he or she has a preference. You need to record the city in which the book was published, the name of the publisher, and the year of publication of the latest edition. If it is a subsequent edition, note which one it is. Most of this information should be found on one of the first pages in the book.
A typical book citation looks like this (note the italicized title and the periods, commas, and colons):
Hammer, Willie. Occupational Safety Management and Engineering. 3rd edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985.
Once you decide on a format, be sure to use it consistently throughout your paper.
If there a two authors for a book, the first author's name is listed with the last name first. The second author's name is listed with the first name first.
Here is an example of a citation for a book by two authors:
Nist, Sherrie and Jodi Patrick Holschuh. College Rules! How to Study, Survive, and Succeed in College. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 2002.
When a book has more than two authors, only the first one is noted, followed by “et al.” This is a Latin term meaning “and others.”
Here is an example of a citation for a book by more than two authors:
Leenders, Michiel R. et al. Purchasing and Materials Management. 8th edition. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1985.
Make sure you understand the difference between a regular bibliography and an annotated bibliography. A regular bibliography is what's described in this chapter. An annotated bibliography includes a brief description after each citation that tells what a writer thinks is the value and relevance of each source. You are not likely to ever include an annotated bibliography in a research paper.
Format for Magazines and Journals
The citation for magazines and journals follows the same format whether they are mainstream publications or those of a technical nature. Again, they are listed alphabetically by the author's last name. The titles of both the article and the publication are noted, as is the date of publication. This citation also notes the pages on which the particular article is found.
Here is an example of a citation for a magazine or journal article. Note that the title of the article is in quotation marks and that only the first word of the title is capitalized:
Struzik, Ed. “Grizzlies on ice.” Canadian Geographic November/December 2003: 38–48.
Format for Newspapers
Newspaper article citations are very similar to those of magazines and journals. The entry begins with the author's name and the title of the article. This is followed by the title of the newspaper and the day, month, year, and edition in which the article was printed. You also must include the page number or numbers.
This is an example of a citation for a newspaper article:
Maharaj, Davan. “The $10 impossible dream: A year of school” Los Angeles
Times 20 July 2004: C2.
Again, check the style guide you are using to determine whether the name of the newspaper should be underlined or italicized. Some guides also place the date before the name of the newspaper.
Format for Encyclopedias
Citations for encyclopedias are unique in that you show the number of total volumes along with the number of the volume that you used as your source. You also include the writer's and the editor's names if they are given, the title of the article, the title of the encyclopedia, the edition, the place and year of publication, and the pages on which the article was found.
Here is a sample citation for an encyclopedia article (the numbers at the end of the citation are the volume number, then a colon, followed by the page number):
“Julius Caesar.” The Golden Home and High School Encyclopedia. 1st edition. 20 vols. New York, NY: Golden Press, 1961. 10:1366.
The Internet is a very quickly developing and changing medium. As it evolves, guidelines for new features are likely to be missing in any but the most current style guide. Use your best judgment to cite these new sources. It is better to collect more information than to leave out something vital. Again, strive for consistency.