The male population of the United States shrank dramatically as millions of men of service age signed up for duty overseas. In some towns, the only remaining males were young boys and old men. As a result, countless women were forced to survive without spousal support. It was difficult, but they persevered, often pulling more than double-duty as mother, father, and wartime factory worker. If war production opportunities were unavailable, many women made ends meet by taking in boarders, moving in with other war wives, or returning home to live with their parents until their husbands could return home.