Wars are won or lost based on the drive and abilities of the people who direct them. The leaders of the Axis — Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Hideki Tojo — rose to power and led their nations into a campaign of global conquest. Focusing on national pride, they whipped their countrymen into a frenzied devotion, driving the belief that military conquest was not merely their right but their divine duty. The Allied leaders were not eager for war. Their nations, still reeling from the losses of World War I, favored peace. But when finally forced into battle by despotic rulers, they faced the challenge and pushed back the enemy.