Korea wasn't the only Pacific nation to be divided in half after the world war. Vietnam, formerly under French colonial rule, was under Japanese occupation during the war. However, the Japanese were strongly opposed in the northern part of the country by a Communist faction known as the Vietminh, under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh. During the war, the Vietminh received arms from the Allies and in turn offered aid and rescue to Allied fliers forced down in the region.
After the war, the Vietminh declared an independent nation and took control of much of northern Indochina, including the cities of Hanoi and Haiphong. Japanese troops in Indochina surrendered to British and Indian forces in the south, who tried to return that area to France, and to Chinese forces in the north. The Chinese then recognized the Vietminh as the region's official government and provided aid and arms in its battle for independence from French colonial rule. France began trying to re-establish control over Indochina in September 1945. It started in the south and in 1946 moved into the north, where it met strong resistance from Chinese troops aiding the Vietminh. Chinese forces later withdrew, but China continued to supply arms to the Vietminh. The French had great difficulty trying to dislodge the Communists, and the fighting came to a head in early 1954 when French troops in the town of Dien Bien Phu found themselves overwhelmed by well-armed Vietminh forces. The United States discussed sending troops to aid the beleaguered French, but public opinion strongly opposed American intervention. Dien Bien Phu fell in May 1954, and a peace conference resulted in French Indochina being divided into two regions: Communist North Vietnam and democratic South Vietnam.
Continuing hostilities between the two nations would eventually bring American advisers and, later, American troops to the aid of South Vietnam. U.S. involvement in the Vietnam conflict would end in April 1975 with the fall of Saigon and unification of the nation under Communist control.