In addition to the special days mentioned, many Muslims acknowledge or celebrate other events in Islamic history.
Isra and Mi'raj
During the year 619
In heaven, he met previous prophets and received instructions about the number of prayers the Muslim community should observe each day. This was seen as a miraculous journey, and it boosted the Muslim community's sense that God was with them despite recent adversity.
Non-Muslims, and even some Muslims, debate over whether this event was an actual physical journey or merely a vision. The majority view among Muslim scholars is that Muhammad truly traveled in body and soul, as a miracle from God.
During the month of Rajab, the Isra and Mi'raj (Night Journey and Ascension) is remembered by some Muslims through special lectures or reading about the lessons to be learned from the event. Such lessons include the importance of Jerusalem in all of the Abrahamic faiths, the importance of prayer, the close relationship among all of God's prophets, and patience in the midst of adversity.
Toward the end of the month of Ramadan, Muslims observe Layla al-Qadr, Arabic for the “Night of Power.” This night marks the revelation of the first verses of the Qur'an to the Prophet Muhammad. The exact date of the first revelation of the Qur'an is unknown, so Muslims observe Layla al-Qadr over a period of time. Tradition holds that Layla al-Qadr falls on one of the odd-numbered nights of the last ten days of Ramadan.
During each of these nights, many Muslims choose to spend long hours in prayer; some even hold overnight retreats in the mosque to dedicate themselves exclusively to prayer. In a chapter in the Qur'an named for it, Layla al-Qadr is described as “better than a thousand months” (Qur'an 97:1–5). During this night, angels descend to earth and there is peace until morning.
Day of Arafat
During the annual pilgrimage, the second day is entirely dedicated to praying for mercy and forgiveness. The pilgrims gather near Mecca on the plain of Arafat, a large open area near a hillside called the Mount of Mercy. This day, the ninth day of the month of Dhul-Hijjah, is known as the “Day of Arafat.” Those Muslims who are not participating in the pilgrimage often spend the day fasting in their home country. This is an optional fast, and it falls the day before the Eid al-Adha celebration.