Ledger Lines and Octaves
Ledger lines are tiny, horizontal lines that appear above or below the staff. Since the staff only captures nine intervals, ledger lines are needed to document those notes that exist in the piano's upper and lower registers. When it is necessary to write extremely low or high notes, the terms
FIGURE 13-10: 8va and 8vb
Ledger lines are important, especially the ones used to represent middle C. In FIGURE 2-3, the keyboard layout, you learned where middle C is situated on the piano. Now, let's look at middle C on the treble and bass clefs. (See
FIGURE 3-11: Middle C on the Treble Clef
FIGURE 3-12: Middle C on the Bass Clef
We can also use ledger lines for higher or lower pitches. FIGURE 3-13 shows the grand staff with three ledger lines above and three ledger lines below each staff. If you wish to write notes lower or higher than this, it is better to use 8va or 8vb.
FIGURE 3-13: Extended Ledger Lines