In his adolescent years, your son's way of thinking will change. He will learn to think in the abstract. He will form his own ideas, and he will explore complex thinking.
One of the biggest changes to your son's thinking is the ability to consider multiple factors when making a decision. He will be able to consider your thoughts, the perceived ramifications at school or home, and his own opinions and desires, all in one complex process.
As your son begins to grasp more complex thinking, he will also start to look to the future and how his current decisions may affect his future goals. In addition to thinking of his future, he will also learn to consider the welfare of other people, including thinking on a national or international level, something a new teen can't typically begin to do.
Parents often find themselves frustrated when their sons simply can't seem to manage to do more than one thing at a time. Recent imaging data shows us that the portion of the brain that handles multitasking doesn't fully develop until after puberty.
You are a big influence on your son's thinking and cognitive development. Your goal is to help him learn these thought processes as he develops. Include your son in adult conversations. Discuss local politics, talk about current events, find something that is important to him, and encourage him to express his opinion verbally in front of the family.
Goal setting is another way to incorporate future thinking. Have your son talk about his future goals. Encourage him to write these down and address the steps that need to be met in order for those goals to happen. This will give him a sense of ownership over his thoughts and decisions.