Pantheism: God Is Everywhere

In the first part of Spinoza's Ethics he takes up the subject of the divine nature. Spinoza is investigating the ultimate nature of reality, or practicing metaphysics. He calls the first principle of the universe God, sometimes substance.

Since Aristotle had said that only substance is capable of independent existence, Spinoza inferred that only God filled such a bill. No other being possessed such infinite attributes. Since only substance is self-caused, free, and infinite, God must be the only substance. He exists necessarily.

Spinoza argues that the nature of such a substance cannot be divided, nor can a second such substance even be conceived. Then Spinoza turns to a statement about his best-known doctrine: whatever is, is in God, and nothing can either be or be conceived without God.

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