Pantheism: God Is Everywhere
In the first part of Spinoza's
Since Aristotle had said that only substance is capable of independent existence, Spinoza inferred that only God filled such a bill. No other being possessed such infinite attributes. Since only substance is self-caused, free, and infinite, God must be the only substance. He exists necessarily.
Spinoza argues that the nature of such a substance cannot be divided, nor can a second such substance even be conceived. Then Spinoza turns to a statement about his best-known doctrine: whatever is, is in God, and nothing can either be or be conceived without God.