What Appears and What Is: Phenomena and Noumena
Contrary to Hume, Kant argued that synthetic
Kant maintained that one could have knowledge of causality in the realm of appearances. In fact, the rationalist and empiricist traditions begun by both René Descartes and John Locke had both assumed there was a dichotomy between ideas about reality and the real world itself. How could one be sure that the ideas in one's mind correspond to the real world? One cannot. Locke adopts the “representative realist” position, since he thinks ideas represent primary qualities.