Ille, illa, illud

The demonstrative ille is perhaps the adjective that most closely corresponds to the English “that.” Before the adjective iste turned mean, ille referred to something neither near the speaker nor near the person being spoken to. After iste took on a life of its own, ille began to refer to anything that was not near the speaker.

Table 13-5 Declension of the Demonstrative Adjective ille, illa, illud

The declension of ille is identical to that of iste.

Most Romance languages take their third person pronouns (“he” and “she”) and definite article adjective (i.e., their word for “the”) from ille. Spanish has él, ella, el, and la for “he,” “she,” “the” (masculine), and “the” (feminine). French: il, elle, le, la. Italian lui, lei, il, la.

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