Northeastern Africa

Traveling east, we come to the countries of Northeastern Africa and the Horn of Africa, so called because it is shaped like an animal's horn. In Chapter 6, you learned that the Nile is the longest river in the world and it flows northward to the Mediterranean Sea. Along the way it flows through Egypt and Sudan, watering the farmlands and giving fresh water for drinking. The Nile is formed by two rivers called the White Nile and the Blue Nile, which meet at Khartoum in Sudan. The Nile is also a big tourist attraction. Cruise ships and traditional sailing boats called feluccas carry people down the river to visit the old parts of Egypt.

DID YOU KNOW?

Pirates!

In 1777, American ships were being attacked by Barbary pirates in the Atlantic Ocean. The sultan, or head, of Morocco declared that the American ships were under his protection and were not to be harmed by the pirates. Ever since, the United States and Morocco have had a friendship treaty that has led to prosperity for both countries.

Let's take our own boat down the Blue Nile to its source at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The second most populated nation in Africa, Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world. However, it is also one of the poorest because of famine and drought. Farming is the biggest part of Ethiopia's economy, but many farmers grow only enough food to feed their families. The most common crops are coffee, sugar cane, wheat, and corn. Some farmers are herders — people who raise animals such as cattle.

In Ethiopia there is a special way to make coffee. Coffee beans are roasted over hot coals to release oils in the beans. Then they are ground up, put into a clay pot with water, and boiled. The coffee is poured back and forth from one pot into another to cool it. Now the coffee is ready to be served. The coffee is poured from cup to cup without stopping to keep the grounds at the bottom of the pot.

ALL ABOUT

Morocco

Capital: Rabat

Largest city: Casablanca

Official language: Arabic

Area: 172,413 square miles

Population: 33.76 million (2007 estimate)

Country

Capital

Djibouti

Djibouti

Egypt

Cairo

Eritrea

Asmara

Ethiopia

Addis Ababa

Somalia

Mogadishu

Sudan

Khartoum

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