In the sixth century B.C.E., two exciting new schools of thought emerged. Jainism practiced reverence for life, celibacy, and moral conduct. It stressed a life of the mind and a turning from a life of bodily pleasures. The other school of thought was Buddhism. Siddhartha Gautama (563–483 B.C.E.) also sought a way of release that did not depend upon the teachings of the Vedas and the rituals of the Brahmins. His essential teaching was that enlightenment came from a monkish existence and nonattachment to anything of this world.