White flour which is a combination of hard and soft wheats. All-purpose flour is good for all types of baking; however, cake flour is preferred for cakes. It is available bleached or unbleached.
A flat pan, usually metal, that may or may not have a lip around the edge.
To make a mixture smooth by briskly stirring with a whisk, spoon, or electric beater.
To gently mix ingredients until they are completely mixed.
To bring a liquid to the temperature that causes bubbles to rise to the surface and break in a steady stream.
Cake flour is made from a soft wheat that creates a more delicate product than all-purpose flour. Always sift cake flour before using.
To beat butter or shortening until it has a light, fluffy consistency. Air is incorporated into the fat so the texture is lighter and fluffier.
To quickly pour a glaze over a baked item randomly and in a thin stream.
To lightly coat a baked good with powdered sugar.
Flavoring products that are made from the essential oil of a plant. These concentrated oils are generally suspended in alcohol. Examples are: vanilla, anise, almond, lemon, mint. Extracts are higher quality than flavorings and are preferred in these recipes.
Imitation extracts which are created in laboratories from chemicals. A flavoring does not have to contain any part of the item it mimics and is often completely artificial.
To gently mix ingredients. Generally, the dry ingredients are sifted over the top of the whipped or beaten ingredients and then a rubber spatula is used to cut through the mixture. The spatula is then moved across the bottom and up the other side, folding the mixture back on itself.
Food-grade dyes which are used to tint various foods. Paste food colors are the best, and give the most intense color.
A thin type of frosting that is used to add extra flavor to a cookie or cake.
A protein present in all flour, but especially in wheat flour. It provides an elastic structure for baked goods. Many people are allergic to it and must not eat it.
Gluten-free baking mix
A baking mix can be used in place of flour that is free of gluten and nonallergenic.
To force frosting or filling through a pastry bag.
A solid fat made from vegetable oils. Shortening has been criticized for the high amounts of trans fatty acids it has had in the past. Manufacturers are now making it without the trans fats, or with reduced trans fats. You can also get organic shortenings that have no trans fats.
To shake flour or powdered sugar through a sifter to make it light and fluffy and to remove lumps.
Vanilla beans are the pods of a special orchid plant that vanilla is made from. It can be placed in a canister with sugar to flavor the sugar.
To beat a food, usually cream or egg whites, rapidly enough to incorporate air and cause the food to double or triple in volume.
The outer, colored portion of a citrus fruit. It is grated and added to foods to flavor them.