Archeoastronomy is, as you might expect, a blend of archeology and astronomy. It combines the study of religion, folklore, celestial myths, and all ancient astronomical rituals and ideas. Often demonstrated through ancient writings and artifacts, archeoastronomy gives us a comprehensive, multicultural view of how modern astronomy came to be.
The origins of astronomical observation and representation date back at least as far as 20,000 B.C. While most Paleolithic art focuses on the representation of earthly creatures such as animals, Neolithic rock art with astronomical themes has been uncovered in Spain, Portugal, and France. These paintings and petroglyphs (rock carvings or drawings) depict the Sun, various planets, and several identifiable constellations. Sun images are often present in depictions of religious scenes, and much more about Sun gods is seen in later drawings and writings.