The Civil War was far more textured an experience than it appears on the surface. About a quarter of the soldiers were foreign born. Another 200,000 were African Americans, some of whom fought for the South. For the first time in history, newspapers made detailed account of a war in progress, complete with illustrations. The new art of photography brought the horrors of war to communities that had sent their sons but had experienced no fighting themselves. And the role of women in the war must not be forgotten. Notable spies — even celebrated soldiers — were female.